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Thinking on Modern Concepts of Money and Fehu

September 1, 2019 2 comments

Something that is a current in many of the documentaries, blogs, and YouTube videos I watch is our modern society’s relationship with money. Money as we generally experience it in modern society is through the lens of fiat currency. This is true whether we are talking about the US dollar, kroners, or cryptocurrency. As I began to think on these things the Rune Fehu came to my mind.

Before I get into where Fehu gets into all of this, let us look at how modern currencies operate.

The US dollar ceased to be on the gold standard June 5th, 1933. On August 15th, 1971 dollars to gold ceased to be converted at a fixed value. What tethered the modern world’s reserve currency to any notion of physical boundaries disappeared a long while ago. Fiat currencies are the majority of the world’s currencies. So if there is no way that currencies are bound to physical things of value, where, then does our money come from?

All money is loaned into existence.

Both Investopedia and Chris Martenson of Peak Prosperity have explanations that agree on this. What does it mean for us that all money is loaned into existence with no backing to the currency by a physical object to which the value of money is tied?

As Michael Ruppert pointed out in the documentary Collapse:

Before the great growth of populaton which occured with the advent of oil came this revolution in the monetary system as well. There was a time when a pound sterling actually meant a pound of sterling silver. There was only so much silver out of the ground. You couldn’t print silver, it was something real. You cannot print any more money than there is energy to back it up.

That last point is deeply important especially since the banking sector relies on fractional reserve banking. Again, quoting Michael Ruppert:

Then there is Fractional Reserve Banking. If you brought me $10 deposit I could make $90 worth of loans just based on having that $10 in my drawer. It is all calculated that not everyone is going to come in and want their cash all at once -that’s a called a run on the bank. When I lend now a total of $100 based on that $10 deposit that is more money I create out of thin air. Well gee, that means that in order to pay off whoever gets that money [that person] has to make more money still to feed in at the bottom so that the banks can create still more money.

Because all money is loaned into existence at interest this means that the economy as a whole is constantly having to produce money, and thus, all those things tied to the economy have to keep on producing things that make money to keep up with the demand of the economic system. When a company goes under, unable to pay back its debts and defaults that money entirely disappears from the economy. Likewise, when I pay back a loan. This encourages debt to a degree heretofore unseen.

This kind of thing simply does not exist in nature. You cannot take any more carrots out of the ground than there were carrots growing to harvest. You cannot take any more milk from your cow than she is able to give. You cannot pull any more oil out of the ground than there is to be had.

The Rune Poems are quite simple and profound in what they have to say about Fehu. These translations I found on The Ragweed Forge. Fé, Fé, and Feoh are the respective Rune to each poem.

From the Icelandic Rune Poem:

Wealth
source of discord among kinsmen
and fire of the sea
and path of the serpent.

From the Norwegian Rune Poem:

  1. Wealth is a source of discord among kinsmen;
    the wolf lives in the forest.

From the Anglo-Saxon Rune Poem:

Wealth is a comfort to all men;
yet must every man bestow it freely,
if he wish to gain honour in the sight of the Lord.

The first two poem sources note that wealth is destructive among kinsmen, while the last calls it a comfort. Fehu, the proto-Germanic reconstruction of the root to the Rune in these poems, translates to cattle. Fé and Feoh are both related to the word cattle and the concept contained within it: mobility, wealth, and mobile wealth.

It makes sense that Fehu is related to cattle. Cattle are a significant source of wealth in Proto-Indo European cultures for a few reasons. First, maintaining any size of herd is expensive due to their need for pasture. The land, the ability to hold it securely, to staff it, and to care for it need resources all their own to work allow for this. Second, cattle produce immense amounts of milk from the cows and any cattle slaughtered for meat produce a lot, as well as a lot of skin, fats, and bones, all useful for an incredible varied amount of foods and goods. Third, they produce incredibly useful manure that returns vitality to the soil and allows fields to grow green and tall. Cattle, in turn, require healthy places to range, protection, and care from those who raise them. There is reciprocity bound into the relationship as a mandate for animal husbandry to work -at all.

Contrast this with how our modern systems of money and value are utterly divorced from these relationships. Cattle cannot grow forever, cannot exponentially reproduce in their lifetime. They die. Like every other living being they go through a life cycle of birth, maturation, decline, and death. There is no International Bank of Cattle. To be sure, there are cattle ‘stocks’ per se, but these are based more on how much poundage a given rancher can squeeze out of their cattle. The rancher is actively encouraged by the economic system to ignore what is best for the cattle, and ultimately, their own livelihood and continued wellbeing, in order to squeeze a few more pounds onto their animals prior to slaughter. The maximization of profits at the expense of the cattle’s comfort, health, wellbeing, as well as that of the lands they graze, or in the case of CAFOs, the bare minimum square footage they occupy prior to being slaughtered. The introduction and continued use of sub-clinical doses of antibiotics, used to increase the weight of animals so they produce more meat for slaughter, now is affecting the ability of antibiotics to kill diseases. We now have diseases developing or that have developed resistance to every available antibiotic.

The way our money system works defies the value that Fehu, even on a basic reading of its etymology, presents to us. Go deeper. Fehu, in the idea of wealth, presents not only living concepts of wealth in that wealth is in the land, water, air, and our relationships with the living world. I firmly understand Fehu as living in right relationship. Cattle can only grow healthy, well, and in numbers able to keep the herd and the humans who work with it healthy in this way.

Why do both the Icelandic and Norwegian Rune Poems warn of Fé being a source of discord among kinsmen? In the Icelandic Rune Poem it is called the fire of the sea and path of the serpent. The fire of the sea is a kenning, as gold is often referred to in fiery terms and it was often raided for. The path of the serpent, in my understanding, is a direct reference to Fafnir, the dragon featured in the Volsungasaga who is slain by Sigurd. The path of the serpent is greed, hoarding, miserly behavior. Wealth accumulated for its own sake, not shared with the community, not allowed to flow, turns poisonous. What should be a healthy relationship with things of value, shared with the community, with friends and loved ones, when kept to oneself turns destructive, destroying both the ability of the hoarder to give and the community to receive. It destroys good bonds of hamingja, denies the vaettir the ability to circulate and develop relationships with those who the wealth would help, and in doing this, stops the wealth’s own ability to be a positive force. Fafnir’s lair is described as desolate, and the air and water around him as poisoned. If we understand the idea of wealth to be those things from which value is able to derive, eg good soil, clean air, clean water, right relationship with all these things, and so on, then the hoarding of wealth allows these things to be destroyed or spoiled. One could easily look to a modern Fafnir as the landowner who simply sits on land, allowing the buildings on it to crumple and blight a neighborhood. One could easily look to a modern Fafnir as the company that operates in a town for years then, once it has entrapped the local economy and destroyed local businesses, when it downsizes or goes abroad for cheaper, more exploitable labor, it leaves behind all its effluence and rips apart the town as it goes. Then it is free to do it again in whatever town it finds itself down the road.

So what of the wolf in the forest in the Norwegian Rune Poem? The wolf was a consistent source of strife for the farmers. You can invest countless hours of work in maintaining your herds of cattle, sheep, or flocks of birds, and find at least one if not many eaten. Those animals were going to help you and your family survive the oncoming harsh winter. Now, they go to feed something that neither lives in your community or contributes to it.

The wolf lives in the forest, meaning it is utgard (outer yard aka outside) to the innangard (inner yard aka interior) of the farm. When looking at the Norwegian Rune poem, the idea I get is of the outsider coming in to disrupt the right relationship wealth has among kinsmen. A prime modern example would be the Pennsylvanians featured in the documentary Gasland. The companies that came in to set up fracking sites made a situation where one neighbor who profited via their mineral rights were pitted against their neighbors who did not until towns, even neighbors, were at each others’ throats over fracking deals being made. Whereas the Icelandic Rune Poem is a caution against the path of the serpent where wealth is hoarded and poisons both the person hoarding it and those around them, the wolf in the Norwegian Rune Poem is the outsider who ravages or pits neighbor against neighbor, profiting from the discord and gaining wealth for themselves and depriving everyone else of it. Since the wolf in this case is utgard, having no bonds of loyalty to those innangard, its disruptive force is even more impactful as it breaks good, healthy bonds of hamingja as well as those of right relationship between communities and the sources of wealth that sustain them and allow them to thrive. The wolf gets its meal in the form of the broken communities it leaves behind and the community gets to clean up after the slathering wolf who bounds away from the community’s slain lambs, licking its chops.

Contrasting these two poems, thankfully, is the Anglo-Saxon Rune Poem. Where the previous two cautioned against the dangers of wealth, this Rune Poem extols its virtues. Indeed, wealth is a comfort to all. Good air, clean water, good soil, right relationship, and the ability to provide for one’s community and self through these things is a source of deep comfort. Without the ability to bestow it freely, and receive it in kind we are left either to hoard it or destitution. Which Lord’s sight would we gain in honor? In my view Odin or Freyr works here. Regardless, when wealth is allowed to flourish the good things of that wealth circulate. From here we are able to give good Gebo to our Gods, Ancestors, and vaettir. Without wealth our cup is empty. We cannot make offerings from an empty cup. The potential of wealth, and indeed money itself to do good is there. It needs to be cared for and allowed to flow to do so healthily. We must be free to care for the land, air, water, and our communities. We must be free to work with the sources of wealth, to bring up good things in it and from it, and to exchange in good Gebo with each other. Fehu’s usual entrance in Runic dictionaries of ‘cattle’ belies the deep ties and right relationships it requires.

So what of modern money and Fehu? If we understand that wealth is not money, but rather, money’s value is derived from wealth, it presents a very different understanding of things compared to how modern society operates. A fiat currency is only able to be exchanged as payment for goods and services because we, as a society, have decreed this currency is able to be used for that purpose. Untethered from any real good, such as gold, which could serve to give it a basis in reality for its value, money’s value fluctuates based on availability in the economy, at how much it is borrowed into existence, and the price of the goods it is able to buy. In the end, money in our society is backed up by the amount of energy that makes it able to purchase goods and services and to pay taxes and our faith that it is a good medium for exchange. This way of organizing how money works directly impacts how we care for all the sources of wealth, our communities, and ourselves. If the only way attain the value of a thing is to price it in terms of what x amount of dollars can buy y thing then unless the sources of wealth can be readily exploited and converted into cash they are deemed relatively worthless. This is why a single room apartment in New York City, cramped and with thin walls, can cost upwards of $2,000 a month where a two bedroom apartment here in Michigan can cost around $800 to $1,000 a month. This is why vacant farmland, cut up and parceled to sell to homeowners, can run anywhere from $1,500 to $5,000 an acre just depending on how close it is to the nearest city.

Fehu requires us to tend the things from which wealth flows. The land, air, waters all must be tended so cattle, mobile wealth, can flourish. So we need to not only protect the land, air, and waters, we need to work to regenerate them. Yellowstone found that when wolves were reintroduced it had huge knock-on effects because rivers would come back and flourish. This was because the trees which held water and held the soil together were not being destroyed by hungry animals. This, in turn, allowed more and more of the park itself to flourish. Fehu, then, requires balance and true appreciation for those things which are the very sources of life, of wealth, and of the good things we can make of this life. We must be living well both spiritually and physically with the Gods, Ancestors, vaettir, and with one another. The soil and water must be healthy so the grass is healthy, so that in turn the grass is healthy so the cattle is healthy, and we who eat the cow then are healthy as well. What we value needs to be valued in life and in death. Slaughtering a cow is still a big undertaking. They need to be cared for well, they should be slaughtered humanely, they are heavy, and their body can make a lot of food and tools. All of this requires preparation, skill, and care to be taken with each step. Even without slaughtering a cow, while the excreta of cows is a potent fertilizer and balancer to the soil, it can only be so if it is allowed to compost properly so it does not present as a vector for diseases to soil, water, to the cows, or to us.

I agree with Kelly Harrel’s point in The Runic Book of Days: as the first Rune in the Futhark, Fehu is the warming power of Muspelheim where Uruz is cold solidity of Nifelheim. Both these Runes are thethered not only to physical concepts but to the spiritual and intellectual ideas found within the Runes. Again and again, wherever I look, Fehu is homeostasis, living balance found in living with the environment one is in. It is not peace; that is another thing entirely. Imbalanced, Fehu is the out-of-control population of hooved animals eating a piece of land to death, hot manure spread over soil, but not allowed to decompose. Imbalanced, Fehu is the path of the serpent and the wolf who breaks the boundariess of the yard, leaving privation and destruction behind.

Our ideas of money, then, should be oriented towards those things which allows the wealth of the soil, the water, the air, our bodies and our spirits to be healthy. This, in turn, makes our money useful to all these things while giving it the opportunity to grow in a useful way rather than for its own sake. When we herd we place boundaries on where the herd is able to go to protect the soil, the water, the air, and the cows themselves. We need to do the same with our money so it does not all leave us, just as we need to give it room to move and be useful. For our purposes, the budget shares the same purpose as the fence with cattle, and the objectives we turn our money toward are similar to the pastures we raise the cattle on. When it comes to Fehu and money I ultimately see a regenerative relationship should we keep in right relationship. The money we ‘graze’ today as investments can come back to us as good cows whose lives we honor by using everything they give us to its best extent. Ideally, we grow our sources of wealth and our money as we would actual cows: by making strong relationships that our descendents are able to benefit from and grow long after we become part of the Ancestors.

The #DoMagick Challenge Day 25

January 6, 2018 Leave a comment
1st Aett

The First Ætt (Made by the Author)

Today I did galdr with the First Ætt.

Given today was the first time in this challenge I was going to do a full ætt, I did a bit more preparation work, especially in deep breathing.  The Fire cleansing seemed especially effective today, and I felt myself fall into the Runework quite well today.

I ended up trying three very different methods of connecting with the Runes, the first two not feeling quite as connective as the last.  The first two attempts I tried to galdr the Runes in succession in a single breath using different intoning and croaking methods.  What I found worked the best was when I took a cleansing breath, and galdred the Rune on the exhale.  When I got it, the first round of galdr brought connection to the Runes, bright and warm, clear connection.

The second round of galdr brought forward more of the rough, the darker aspects of the Runes.  Unlike previous galdr, this was more connection with the Runes as family, and there was interplay between the Runes, such as resonance of power and strength in Uruz and Thurisaz.  As each round of galdr unfolded I felt and experienced these connections play out differently, the first being more a feeling of warmth and connection, this second was more like seeing them in the world.  Fehu was the field, Uruz the auroch, Thurisaz the primal cycles the land and animals follow ending in the auroch’s slaughter, Ansuz a cleansing and celebration of the life given, Raiðo the journey to the feast, Gebo the gifting of the animal and care of its bones, the tending of its horns, and Wunjo the gathering of kin and the celebration of the auroch’s gift and the season’s turning.

The third round of galdr each brought a feeling of echoing back to previous experiences with the Rune.  With Fehu I felt rootedness.  With Uruz I felt strength.  With Thurisaz I felt danger and fury.  With Ansuz I felt cleansing.  With Raiðo I felt journeying, and a bit of a pilgrimage.  With Kenaz I felt the torch in my hand, and was walking the boundary of my home.  With Gebo I was exchanging gifts with a dear friend, wrapping paper and all.  With Wunjo I was gathering my family and Kindred under a banner that each contributed to, and each was comforted in and by.

As before I made my prayer to Rúnatýr and the Runevaettir, and my prayer to Fire Itself, and cleansed before sitting down, designing the aett above, and writing this.

Link to the Daily Ritual for the Challenge.

#DoMagick

The #DoMagick Challenge Day 17

December 21, 2017 Leave a comment
Teiwaz

Teiwaz (Wikimedia Commons)

Today I did galdr with Teiwaz.

I cleansed with Sacred Fire after making the Fire Prayer.  I settled deep, deep into meditation headspace today.  I had done a brief but potent bit of exercising just before coming home and jumping into doing the Runework.  I may repeat this because the result was several moments of connection with the Rune and a kind of disconnect from myself.  Not in a “I have lost myself” but more of a “getting lost in the Rune moreso than usual”.

The first round of galdr brought the experience of The Binding of Fenris, of Fenris biting off Tyr’s hand, with myself being in both roles one after the other.  It was intense, and to this end I will say no more.  The next part of the first round brought with it the holding of a spear before a wall, before a town with farmsteads behind.  Not merely standing, but seeing a threat coming and readying to do something about it, spear in one hand and shield in the other alongside fellows forming a wall of shields and spears.  The last part of the first round was a sword being unsheathed, a spear being held for combat, grit teeth and flashing, then bloodied steel.

The second round of galdr brought with it the feeling of the home, of doing well in the community.  The next part of the second round I experienced a holmgang to defend myself in a matter.  What seemed to matter in what Teiwaz showed me here was not the end, but that I stood up in the sacred space and took to my duty.  I did not see how the fight ended up.  In the final galdr of this round I was sitting as a chieftain in the hall, a fight ready to break out between two families.  It was the act of putting away the swords I was meant to see: the judicious use of violence and force, and the force that can make these things come forth or retreat.

The third round of galdr was very heady.  I fell into and out of being able to articulate what I was experiencing.  I think the closest I can come to is experiencing the meaning of it, God or Gods.  Like dipping into the current of meaning and power there.  As I galdred further, this connected feeling swelled and I was being overwhelmed by the Rune.  It was like swimming in Its power, Its Being.  As I finished the heady feeling stopped crashing over me, and I slowly came back to myself.

I did my prayers of thanks to Rúnatýr and the Runevaettir.  I cleansed with the candle and prayed prayers of thanks to the Eldest Ancestor.  I am still a bit blown away by Teiwaz’s response.

Link to the Daily Ritual for the Challenge.

#DoMagick

The #DoMagick Challenge Day 15

December 17, 2017 Leave a comment
Algiz

Algiz (Wikimedia Commons)

Today I did galdr with Algiz.

As yesterday, I cleansed with the Eldest Ancestor, Fire.   Today’s galdr was held before my altar to Rúnatýr and the Runevaettir.  When I lit the candle, a white seven day candle, I made the Fire Prayer and thanked the Eldest Ancestor for cleansing me, purifying me for the work ahead.  I then sat the candle on the ground in front of me throughout the galdr.

In my first round of galdr, I felt a hooking into the Earth similar to when I do tree meditation.  The knitting together of roots with my ‘root’, and a connection to Midgard came and hooked roots into my spine.  I felt relaxed as I breathed, and a kind of balance came.  It is worth noting I do not usually do lotus position for meditation work, and here I felt quite comfortable with it.

For the first and some of the second part of the first round of galdr, this is all I experienced.  As I was finishing the second part of the first round and into and through the last part, I experienced being before a great tree.  It was both immensely vast and yet I could still see all its parts, from roots going into the soil to its tower height.

For the second round of galdr  I sat with this great tree.  It was Yggdrasil and it was every sacred tree in connection with It.  It was incredible, it was vast, and Worlds were growing in Its various branches and roots, and yet it was climbable. I could feel the waters taken up in Its roots and I could walk among them.  It felt both like home and uncanny.

For the third round of galdr I had an experience of a rite before a tree.  I felt the blood of sacrifice drip down my upward, outstretched arms, and felt the place become holy.  Then the scene changed and I was standing in a grove and kneeling in prayer, again, arms outstretched.  It felt like arms were reaching down in kind, in answer.  I felt I needed to raise my arms in imitation of the Rune’s form and as I galdred it was a moment of union between the Tree and I, that feeling for a few moments of truly being Ask and Embla’s son.

When I was finished I cleansed with the candle as before, thanking it for cleansing me.  I then did my usual prayers to Rúnatýr and the Runevaettir, asking the Eldest Ancestor to help me come back to normal space as I snuffed the candle, thanking the Eldest Ancestor.  I felt relaxation and peace as the smoke curled up around me.

Link to the Daily Ritual for the Challenge.

#DoMagick

 

The #DoMagick Challenge Day 14

December 16, 2017 Leave a comment
Pertho

Perðro (Wikimedia Commons)

Today I did galdr with Perðro.

As yesterday, I cleansed with the Eldest Ancestor, Fire.   Today’s galdr was held before my altar to Rúnatýr and the Runevaettir.  When I lit the candle, a white seven day candle, I made the Fire Prayer and thanked the Eldest Ancestor for cleansing me, purifying me for the work ahead.  I then sat the candle on the ground in front of me throughout the galdr.

In the first round of galdr I saw Perðro in its Rune form white on a field of black, then it reversed in color.  Then, it became a wooden cup out of which dice were rolled.  Then, it became a bag out of which chips were dropped.  Then, I saw a door into pitch darkness open, yawning.

In the second round of galdr I saw the cup again, being shook vigorously.  A few moments of breathing, of bated breath and then, the crash of the wooden cup on a wooden table.  I saw a great swirling darker than darkness yawning like a mouth, and it swirled round and round.  I saw a mouth open and words came, on what I do not know, but the mouth was open and speaking about what lay before it.

In the third round of galdr I saw the dice being interpreted.  The chips were being read.  There were strands coming off the cup, off the bag, off the hands that went into them, the mouth that spoke.  I saw threads come undone and attach, saw as things took shape in the doorway shape of the Rune.  I saw the disgorging of a spell after a long wait, the rumination on things until it was time to make a final choice.  I saw the door opened to some possibilities and shut to others.  I saw choice and consequence come to bear.  I saw the Ginnungagap and Mystery interplay but how I cannot say.

The #DoMagick Challenge Day 11

December 12, 2017 Leave a comment
Isa

Isa (Wikimedia Commons)

Today I did galdr with Isa.

Today’s galdr was done entirely outside, cleansing with Großmutter Una in my sacred pipe.  I then did my prayers in preparation, and my usual breathing into the right headspace.

Today I was surrounded by snow under my feet, and the sky was full of snow.  Isa was all around me.  The breathing in of that cold snow brought with it a sharp cleansing.  There is something beautiful and powerfully spiritual about sitting in all of that stillness, all the lights off, the only light being in my pipe and some far off neighbors.  When I did my first round of galdr that is all I experienced: that stillness, the meditative silence.

The second round of galdr was more active.  My voice echoed in the quiet, and then I heard something I was not expecting at all: an answer.  It was a cow lowing, and I saw and felt the sensation of being licked out of ice by a cow.  When I opened my eyes to begin the galdr in the second round I was again answered by a cow lowing.  There is life in ice.  There is nourishment in it.  There is holiness in it.  I made the last galdr of the round and there was a feeling of containment, of expansion, of the melting away for things to be revealed.

The third galdr was croaking, loud.  It rebounded around me, and I saw a glacier, great, carving the land.  Then that glacier melting.  I saw the Arctic and the melting floes, the land of the coasts being consumed by sea.  I saw the rivers swelling and the Great Lakes filling again.  Ice is part of the cycles of water, and we need it deeply.  I felt hibernation and untapped waters, I felt the freezing blasts of blizzards, and I felt the gentle snow around me.  Despite seeing and experiencing the violence that Isa can bring, I felt vast calmness in it.

When I finished I made prayers of thanks to Rúnatýr and the Runevaettir.  As the last time I smoked, I cleansed with smoke from Großmutter Una, and then cleaned my pipe to come back to normal headspace.

Link to the Daily Ritual for the Challenge.

#DoMagick

The #DoMagick Challenge Day 2

December 2, 2017 Leave a comment
Uruz

Uruz (Wikimedia Commons)

Today I did galdr with Uruz.

As yesterday, my work was done entirely outside from start to finish from about 8pm-9pm.  It was a little chilly, but I was comfortable.  Maybe if the weather turns cold and harsh I will bring it inside.  Until then, we will see.

As before, I smoked Großmutter Una to cleanse and prepare myself.  I eased into the galdr work after all the prayers were made.

Breathing deep, my body was warming up, and my body was filling with power.   I felt myself a great beast, filling with air, with potential, with power.  I felt mySelf, my animal within me stir.  Another animal rose as I finished my prayers of connection with Uruz.  The first time I galdred Uruz, I could feel the auroch as I lowed.  Uruz came three times from my lips and that animal came bellowing out of me.

When I continued to galdr Uruz, it was connecting to power, within and without.  It was power, but not only for destruction.  It was the primal power that when you look into someone’s eyes, they understand and do.  It was not charisma, it was the primal pull that tells someone something needs to be done, and then to go do it.  

It is rising heat and muscle put to work.  It is the potential energy of those muscles at rest, the potential of a round piece of wood to be made into a torch.  It is the ability to do great violence, and the ability to do great things.  It is ferocity and will, patience until the time to act which is done decisively.  It was animal, it was primal.  Damn did it feel good.

After finishing my prayers of thanks and cleansing with the meditation done, I spent time cleaning out my pipe and coming back to normal headspace.

Link to the Daily Ritual for the Challenge.

#DoMagick

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